We prepare students to succeed in college and to impact the world for Christ.
The Upper School faculty are passionate about investing in the lives of students. Teachers develop meaningful relationships with their students and know them as individuals. Based on those relationships, teachers challenge students to strive for high academic and personal standards.
Mt. Bethel Christian Academy graduates go out into the world confident and well prepared to use their God-given talents to impact the world for Christ in whatever endeavor they pursue.
For a complete list of graduation requirements and course sequence, please contact our admission department to request a curriculum map.
At Mt. Bethel Christian Academy, we view the study of Scripture and Christian living to be as essential as any other core subject. The central aim of our Bible curriculum is to help students understand and apply the principles of a Christian worldview. Our course sequence is designed to equip students to articulate their beliefs and encourage them to become a living witness by radiating the love of Christ in college, career, and community.
Old Testament and the Life of Jesus
In Old Testament and the Life of Jesus, students begin looking at the life of Christ through a brief overview of the Old Testament. Students then learn the message and the life application of each of the Books that tell of the life of Jesus Christ, known as the Gospels - Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. Students learn to interpret the Gospels objectively by reviewing the impact of the Old Testament and the tools of narrative literature.
Church History follows the development of the catholic Church, or the Church universal, from its establishment to the present. Students’ exploration of the Bible is continued by looking at the spread of the Church in Acts of the Apostles and the further development of the Church’s theological foundation through the epistles. The second half of the course is an overview of the historical church’s development and spread. Students explore how the theology and liturgy of the church have developed over time, how the church has reformed and divided, and new theological movements in the church that have emerged in the last century.
Worldviews and World Religions
Worldviews and World Religions examines the predominant religious traditions of the world in terms of their history, worldviews, and practices. These include the religions of the Middle East (Judaism and Islam), South Asia (Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism), and East Asia (Confucianism, Shintoism, and Daoism). Primary emphasis is placed on historical and geographical origin, though later adaptations and developments are also be discussed. Tracing the contours of nine major “world religions,” students have the opportunity to familiarize themselves with the diversity of religiosity in various cultures and contexts.
Ethics and Apologetics
The Ethics and Apologetics course is designed to send off the MBCA Senior class into college and the world with a firm understanding of the Christian faith and how to make thoughtful and wise ethical decisions. This course is the capstone of the Bible curriculum at Mt. Bethel and includes three major components. The first is the students’ study of ethics, or how to determine whether an action is right or wrong. The second is the study of apologetics, which is the discipline of “defending the faith”, or being able to intelligently respond to the criticisms and objections against Christianity. The third major component of the course is the Senior Rhetorical Thesis. This thesis is a way for students to take a position on a topic of their interest, craft a persuasive argument, and defend their position in front of their peers and community. By the end of any student’s time at Mt. Bethel, we hope they are be able to securely answer and defend their positions to the questions “What is good?” and “Who is God?”
One of the hallmarks of a Mt. Bethel Christian graduate is an ability to communicate with precision and confidence. Regardless of one's field of endeavor, possessing a firm grasp of the English language is key to communicating well. Our upper school course progression builds upon the firm foundations laid in lower and middle school and prepares students to enter college, career and community, ready to communicate persuasively in their conversations and in their writing.
Literary Genres pushes students to further develop the skills garnered during middle school. Students explore various literary genres with an emphasis on deepening close reading skills. Through literature, students practice finding meaning, identifying tone and mood, and drawing inferences. As readers and writers, students work to paraphrase, summarize, and analyze difficult passages, also employing these skills in an extended poetry project which introduces essential research skills.
LITERARY HONORS GENRES
Literary Genres Honors covers much of the same material in Literary Genres, but at greater depth and complexity. Additionally, and importantly, honors students are expected to approach their work with greater independence and competence.
In World Literature, students study a broad range of literature from around the world that encompasses everything from Ancient Greece to modern America. Emphasis is on honing writing skills in preparation for the next level in college English.
world Literature Honors
World Literature Honors covers much of the same material as in World Literature, but at a greater depth and complexity. Notably, honors students are expected to approach their work with greater independence and competence. As readers and writers, students work to paraphrase, summarize, and analyze difficult passages and to employ these skills in projects that introduce essential research skills.
As the new republic of the United States began to define itself culturally, the first half of the nineteenth century gave way to the development of an American literary identity. Writers emerged to create a distinctive American voice. This course focuses on the literature of early-to-mid-nineteenth century America, including texts of Irving, Hawthorne, Melville, Emerson, Whitman, Poe, and Dickinson. Students compare and contrast numerous works of poetry and prose while pursuing the corresponding historical developments of the era. In response to their reading and class discussions, students write a variety of compositions. They devise their own conclusions about what works are essential to defining a voice in American literature. In addition, students develop a college essay to be honed and used in preparation for their college applications.
AP Language & COMPOSITION
AP Language and Composition is the study of rhetorical strategy. To that end, students closely analyze many types of writing from personal memoirs to scientific journals. The course offers an opportunity to take a closer look at global and domestic issues and how we as society choose to respond to them. In addition, students develop a college essay to be honed and used in preparation for their college applications. This class is taught as a college-level English course with the opportunity to earn college credit if students succeed on the College Board AP exam.
Over the centuries, the British Isles have produced a rich and varied body of literature that has informed and influenced the rest of the reading world. Students read, discuss, compare, contrast, and write about significant works that reflect and respond to the history of England and its powerful role in Europe and beyond. This class provides a broad overview of literature from the Anglo-Saxon period to the modern era, including the genres of poetry, prose, and drama. Throughout the course, students read texts closely and create a response by writing several analytical papers with a variety of prompts. Students also complete a research paper during the first semester.
AP Literature & COMPOSITION
AP Literature and Composition is an advanced introduction to the elements of literary study, simultaneously challenging students to read, write, and think about literary texts in a sophisticated and intellectually rigorous manner. During the course of the year, students make a detailed study of the major works, periods, and movements of the literature written in English from its beginning to the 20th century. Discussions of historical, social, and cultural developments introduce and provide a framework for understanding the literature studied in each period. Students write summaries, paraphrases, and frequent analytical and interpretive essays. This class is taught as a college-level English course with the opportunity to earn college credit if students succeed on the College Board AP exam.
We study history to see into the future. With a thorough understanding of the events and decisions that have shaped our civilization, we are empowered to move ahead and leave our mark on history. At Mt. Bethel Christian Academy, our history faculty are passionate about connecting students with the arc of God's hand throughout history in a way that excites and inspires.
Ancient World History
This course focuses on key civilizations and societies and the people, events, and developments in world history from the foundation of complex societies (circa 3000 B.C.) through the medieval period (ending around 1400 A.D.).
AP Human Geography
AP Human Geography is an introductory college-level human geography course. Students cultivate their understanding of human geography through data and geographic analyses as they explore topics like patterns and spatial organization, human impacts and interactions with their environment, and spatial processes and societal changes.
Modern World History
Beginning with the sixteenth century and continuing into the late twentieth century, this course investigates major developments in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Latin America, with the second semester devoted to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Students gain a basic knowledge of several world civilizations and an enhanced awareness of their achievements over time. Students develop an understanding of the significant values, beliefs, and interests that have shaped intercultural and international relationships during the early-modern to modern periods of history.
AP World History
AP World History is a college-level modern world history course. Students cultivate their understanding of world history from circa 1200 CE to the present through analyzing historical sources and learning to make connections and craft historical arguments as they explore concepts like humans and the environment, cultural developments and interactions, governance, economic systems, social interactions and organization, and technology and innovation. Students have the opportunity to earn college credit upon success on the College Board AP exam.
United States History is a comprehensive survey of our nation’s history from 1450 to the present. The class focuses on the themes, patterns, and principles established at the foundation of our country and how they have developed over time. In this way, students can understand our cultural, political, economic, and social heritage and how this heritage has shaped our present. Students develop critical thinking skills, the ability to write effective essays, and the tools to interpret primary and secondary sources.
AP U.S. History
This Advanced Placement course covers all topics and meets all standards prescribed by the College Board. The course focuses on developing students’ abilities to think conceptually about U.S. history from approximately 1491 to the present and apply historical thinking skills as they learn about the past. Seven themes of equal importance – American and national identity; migration and settlement; politics and power; work, exchange, and technology; America and the world; geography and the environment; and culture and society – provide areas of historical inquiry for investigation throughout the course. These require students to reason historically about continuity and change over time and make comparisons among various historical developments in different times and places. At the end of the course, students should be well-prepared for success on the College Board AP Exam.
American Government is a semester-long class designed to acquaint students with the origins, concepts, organizations, and policies of the United States government and political system. It is important to recognize that while topics of political ideologies are discussed, the course is not a forum to debate or proselytize for a particular ideological perspective. The primary focus of this course is to teach political mechanics, which entails the interactions within and between elements of the government. To increase comprehension, students read and analyze relevant primary and secondary source documents and incorporate these ideas into the assigned material.
Economics is designed to provide students with a basic understanding of economic concepts, institutions, and social and personal decision-making. Included in the course is a comparison of economic models and a unit on economic interdependence. The goal of the course is to prepare students to be effective employees, consumers, and global citizens.
AP Government and Politics: US
This Advanced Placement course covers all topics and meets all standards prescribed by the College Board. The year-long course is designed to acquaint students with the origins, concepts, organizations, and policies of the United States government and political system. It is important to recognize that while topics of political ideologies are discussed, the course is not a forum to debate or proselytize for a particular ideological perspective. The primary focus of this course is to teach political mechanics, which entails the interactions within and between elements of the government. To increase comprehension, students read and analyze relevant primary and secondary source documents and incorporate these ideas into the assigned material. At the end of the course, students should be well-prepared for success on the College Board AP Exam.
* Semester long course
There is a created order to the universe. Understanding that order is not only key to understanding creation but also the Creator. Collectively, our nation suffers from math anxiety. We compare our math performance to other countries and often do not like what we find. The key to a deep and useful understanding of mathematics is an expert, passionate, and patient faculty capable of "demystifying" a subject that often seems outside our reach. At Mt. Bethel Christian Academy, you will find faculty who can meet a student where they are and move them further than they thought possible.
- Algebra I
- Geometry & Geometry Honors
- Algebra II & Algebra II Honors
- Pre-Calculus & Pre-Calculus Honors
- College Algebra & Dual-Enrollment College Algebra
- Statistics & Dual-Enrollment Statistics
- AP Calculus AB & AP Calculus BC
This course focuses on enhancing math knowledge and further developing problem-solving skills that can be used on a daily basis. This course provides future leaders the strong, quantitative reasoning skills that will be required in the future for effective decision making. Real life applications of Algebra are a key element to this study in order to further cement the value and impact of this work.
The Geometry course is a study of Euclidean Geometry which is a system of axioms/postulates and theorems logically proven from them. This system was formalized by Euclid, a Greek mathematician who lived around 300 B.C. and covers the four areas of points, lines, planes and angles, and multi-dimensional shapes. Upon completion of this course, students are able to complete geometrical proofs, analyze the relationships in triangles, transformations, surface areas, and parallel and perpendicular lines, and calculate the areas of polygons and circles. The goal of Geometry is to develop logical reasoning skills culminating in the development of formal proofs. Work is completed using a compass and straightedge as well as computer software (Geometer’s Sketchpad) to demonstrate many of the concepts that are studied.
The Geometry Honors course is designed for students who have successfully completed Honors Algebra 1. The course covers the same material as on-level Geometry, but at a faster pace with more intense problem-solving and application concepts. Students use inductive and deductive reasoning through the use of proofs to justify theorems and build on ideas based on the concepts and techniques of Euclidian plane and solid geometry.
The Algebra II course focuses on enhancing math knowledge and further developing problem-solving skills that can be used on a daily basis. This course provides future leaders the strong, quantitative reasoning skill set required for future effective decision making. Real life applications of Algebra are a key element to this study in order to further cement the value and impact of this work.
Algebra II Honors
Algebra II Honors enriches the same material as Algebra II by applying the concepts to problems that require higher order thinking skills. Algebra II Honors seeks to build a strong mathematical foundation for students who will take Precalculus and Calculus. Topics include radicals, quadratic functions and equations, polynomials, rational expressions, systems of equations and inequalities, conic sections, sequences and series, exponents, and logarithms. The curriculum is covered at a faster pace than the standard Algebra II course with more intense problem-solving and application concepts.
Precalculus consists of those subjects, skills, and insights needed to understand calculus. It includes arithmetic, algebra, coordinate geometry, trigonometry, and most of all, functions. Students build on their previous mathematical knowledge and experiences.
Precalculus Honors is an advanced course to help students begin preparing for college and is designed to prepare students for AP calculus. A strong background in algebra and geometry is essential for success in this course. The curriculum is at a faster pace than the standard precalculus course and covers more content, ending with an introduction to calculus in May.
The course is designed for students who have successfully completed Algebra II and gives students the foundation to be successful in a college-level algebra course. Students review basic concepts taught in Algebra I and II such as equations and inequalities, polynomial and rational functions, inverse, and exponential and logarithmic functions, along with the graphs of these functions. Students have the option to dual-enroll as students of both MBCA and Truett McConnell University in the spring semester.
Statistics & Dual-Enrollment Statistics
Statistics consists of those subjects, skills, and insights needed to understand and analyze data. Sports, medicine, science, education, and business fields all use probability and statistics in everyday work. This course is designed to give students an introduction and strong foundation for their work in these fields of study and is open to seniors who have completed precalculus. The course includes observational as well as experimental studies, qualitative as well as quantitative data, probability, discrete and continuous random variables and their distributions, inference, and decision-making. Students will be prepared not only to analyze data numerically, but to explain their analysis in a clear, understandable manner. Students are dual-enrolled as students of both MBCA and Truett McConnell University in the spring semester.
AP Calculus AB
This Advanced Placement course covers all topics and meets all standards prescribed by the College Board. The overall goal of this course is to help students understand and apply the three big ideas of AB calculus: limits, derivatives and integrals, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Imbedded throughout the big ideas are the mathematical practices for AP Calculus: reasoning with definitions and theorems, connecting concepts, implementing algebraic/computational processes, connecting multiple representations, building notational fluency, and communicating mathematics orally and in well-written sentences. At the end of the course, students should be well-prepared for success on the College Board AP Calculus AB Exam.
AP Calculus BC
This Advanced Placement course covers all topics and meets all standards prescribed by the College Board. Calculus consists of two main topics: derivatives and integrals – both of which are based on the concept of a limit. This course works toward students understanding these concepts algebraically, graphically, and numerically as well as the connections between those representations. In addition to being able to complete the algebraic steps in solving problems, students will also need to understand and articulate the conceptual meaning of the concepts in calculus. The course begins with the foundational study of limits, then moves into a study of the techniques and applications of derivatives, and concludes by studying techniques and applications of integrals. At the end of the course, students are well-prepared for success on the College Board AP Calculus BC Exam.
At Mt. Bethel Christian Academy, we believe that the world around us was meant to be experienced – up close and in person. From kindergarten through twelfth grade, students in our science classes benefit from our rich tradition of inquiry-based learning. They encounter each subject through experimentation and in the process, develop the critical thinking skills needed to prepare students for college-level study and to develop scientific literacy, so they can form sound opinions and take effective action.
- Biology & Biology Honors
- Physical Science
- Environmental Science
- Chemistry & Chemistry Honors
- Anatomy & Physiology
- Computer Science
- AP Biology
- AP Chemistry
- AP Physics I
- AP Physics C
This course includes laboratory work, study of specimens, projects, and a thorough understanding of scientific inquiry. Course content encompasses interrelationships of living things and levels of biological organization. Instruction centers around inquiry-based learning that is incorporated into class activities. Learning activities include teacher-lead instruction, group work, student seatwork, project-based learning, and lab exercises with both student-choice and teacher-choice grouping. At times, students work independently from the teacher in order to achieve student autonomy expected of Upper School students. Classes are structured to utilize every minute for learning and assessing understanding with real world application as a daily objective. Higher-level thinking is incorporated into each lesson as well as use of technology to increase student achievement. Our goal is for students to understand the full range of theories in biology and to see how they can be framed from a Christian worldview with God as the Creator of life.
Biology Honors is an accelerated course that covers the same content as standard biology; however, it is taught at an increased conceptual level, which is designed to prepare students for AP Biology. Biology, the study of life, begins with primitive organisms and proceeds to more complex plants and animals. Students study the basic chemical components of all living things, cell structure and function, and how genetics affects both the cellular and species levels. Both evolution and creationism are covered before moving on to the classification of all living things. Human physiology, which includes the major body systems, is also covered. In addition, the course includes an overview of ecology and discusses current environmental issues. Students have the opportunity to use hands-on laboratory activities and instruments in order to employ the scientific method. Students gain both a strong foundation for university-level study in biology and a greater appreciation and awe for God through the study of His creation.
Environmental Science is a year-long, discussion-based course designed to give students an opportunity to explore a variety of topics. These include looking at the nature of science, what the Bible has to say about science, and what modern culture has to say about science and the environment. Five major areas of study are examined after discussions about the essence of environmental science and how it relates to public policy and culture, and competing philosophical viewpoints. Assignments involve the development of basic vocabulary in order to have intelligent conversations about the environment, reading articles and speeches and posting opinions about the assigned readings, writing papers, and completing projects that demonstrate understanding of these ideas. Students develop a greater ability to communicate how worldview affects one’s opinion of environmental policy and be able to respectfully debate a topic, sometimes from a differing point of view.
Chemistry is the study of matter, its structure, properties, and composition, and the changes that matter undergoes. This is a year-long, laboratory-based course designed to give students an opportunity to explore a variety of topics in general chemistry. Students study the core principles of chemistry, which allows for study of all the major subdivisions of chemistry in greater depth in future courses. The course includes a basic introduction to organic chemistry in the second semester. The laboratory portion of the course reinforces concepts and processes discussed in class, as well as provides a hands-on experience to supplement class discussion and textbook material.
Chemistry Honors covers the material in chemistry, but at a faster pace with the opportunity to go more in-depth in some areas. Chemistry is the study of matter, its structure, properties, and composition, and the changes that matter undergoes. This is a year-long, laboratory-based course designed to give students an opportunity to explore a variety of topics in general chemistry. The laboratory portion of the course reinforces concepts and processes discussed in class, as well as provide a hands-on experience to supplement class discussion and textbook material.
Anatomy and Physiology is a course in which students study the structure and function of the human body from both a cellular and systematic perspective. Topics include body organization, cell structure and function, tissue classification, integumentary system, skeletal system, muscular system, nervous and sensory systems, endocrine system, cardiovascular system, blood and lymphatic systems, immune system, respiratory system, digestive system, urinary system, and the reproductive system. In addition, diseases within each of the human body systems is discussed. Various laboratory activities including several dissections are completed in order to apply the information learned.
The course in Computer Science is an introduction to programming and computer science. Students utilize Carnegie Mellon University's online integrated development environment (IDE) to program code. They start the year programming in Python, but may move on to other languages as time permits. Students may also express an interest in other Computer Science disciplines, such as CAD and Networking. Students finish the course with a foundation in Computer Science and logic skills applicable to other programming languages.
In Physics, kinematics, dynamics, circular motion and gravitation, energy, momentum, simple harmonic motion, torque and rotational motion, electric charge and electric force, DC circuits, mechanical waves and sound are all covered. Students develop an intuition for and understanding of basic physical principles through inquiry-based learning and laboratory exercises.
The Advanced Placement Biology course is designed to be the equivalent of a two-semester college introductory biology course usually taken by biology majors during their first year. This course shifts from a traditional “content coverage” model to one that focuses on enduring, conceptual understandings and the content that supports them. More time is spent on inquiry-based learning and reasoning skills necessary to engage in the science practices. The course is designed around eight major units and science practices – Chemistry of Life, Cell Structure and Function, Cellular Energetics, Cell Communication and Cell Cycle, Heredity, Gene Expression and Regulation, Natural Selection, and Ecology – that encompass the core scientific principles, theories, and processes governing living organisms and biological systems. Emphasis is placed on developing an understanding of unifying concepts rather than on memorizing terms and technical details. This course uses teacher presentations, laboratory investigations, case studies, hands-on learning activities, videos, and on-line learning resources to reinforce concepts presented. At the end of the course, students should be well-prepared for success on the College Board AP Exam.
This year-long, laboratory-based course is designed to give students an opportunity to complete a college-level chemistry class. AP Chemistry is the study of matter, its structure, properties, and composition, and the changes that matter undergoes. In this course, students study the fundamental principles of chemistry, which allow them to study all the major subdivisions of chemistry in greater depth in future courses. It is based on a national curriculum that ends with the AP Chemistry exam. The laboratory portion of this course enables students to develop the skills that are expected at the college-level, including the design of experiments to reach a goal, and the analysis of data from the experiment. At the end of the course, students should be well-prepared for success on the College Board AP Exam.
This Advanced Placement course covers all topics and meets all standards prescribed by the College Board. In AP Physics 1, kinematics, dynamics, circular motion and gravitation, energy, momentum, simple harmonic motion, torque and rotational motion, electric charge and electric force, DC circuits, and mechanical waves are all covered. Using an in-depth algebraic approach to problem solving, students develop an intuition for and understanding of basic physical principles through inquiry-based learning and laboratory exercises. At the end of the course, students should be well-prepared for success on the College Board AP Exam.
This Advanced Placement course covers all topics and meets all standards prescribed by the College Board. In AP Physics C, topics in mechanics (kinematics, Newton’s Laws of Motion, work, energy, and power, linear momentum, circular motion and rotation, oscillations, and gravitation) as well as electricity and magnetism (electrostatics, conductors, capacitors, and dielectrics, electric circuits, magnetic fields, and electromagnetism) are all explored through a calculus-based approach. Students develop an intuition for and understanding of basic physical principles with an emphasis on calculation through inquiry-based learning and laboratory exercises. At the end of the course, students should be well-prepared for success on the College Board AP Exam.
Health is a semester-long course required for graduation. It is typically taken in the freshmen year and is divided into four major content areas. The study of mental and social health explores how self-esteem, peer pressure and personal values affect decision-making. The drug education unit reveals the negative effects of illegal drugs, tobacco, and alcohol. The third unit covers basic first aid and CPR. Lastly, sex education is addressed as students explore the costs of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In this unit, emphasis is placed on decision-making skills and abstinence.
This course covers an introduction to basic physical needs of the students and how to maintain lifelong fitness. Movement, coordination, cardiovascular and respiratory health, exercise, injury prevention, and lifelong fitness are all addressed. Students participate in fitness labs, weight training, and classroom lectures. They are assessed on their participation and assessment grades as well as their improvement in overall fitness awareness throughout the duration of the course.
Strength and Conditioning is a semester-long elective course not required for graduation. Personal fitness is taught in and outside the classroom with the emphasis being on understanding the concept of physical fitness as it relates to the total health and well-being of the student. Students learn how to assess their own health and fitness levels and design their personal fitness program. They also learn how to maintain a desired level of fitness once fitness has been achieved. Fitness myths and fallacies are discussed along with consumer issues which relate to fad diets, exercise gadgets, and gimmicks.
Speech Communications is a course aimed at introducing students to the basic concepts of communication. The course offers an overview of the process of communication and provides a variety of public speaking experiences. Speeches come in many different types, including self-introduction, informative, persuasive, and the speech for a special occasion, among others. Students perform literary interpretations, listen to effective speakers, and give sales pitches. This course includes instruction in adapting speech to different audiences and purposes. In addition, students examine mass media and familiarize themselves with the different forms of communication as the course aims to make students not only better communicators, but better rhetoricians; people capable of using sound and ethical rhetoric and of analyzing other forms of communication for subtle usage of logos, ethos, and pathos.
All seniors complete a thesis project which is the capstone of the MBCA academic program. In this thesis, seniors develop a thoughtful and informed presentation on an issue of their choice by drawing on academically credible research. With compelling evidence to support their position and refute opposing solutions, students advocate for a solution to a problem of personal interest. The thesis culminates in a 20-minute oral presentation of the student’s argument before a board of judges and a community audience, followed by a 15-minute defense as the student answers questions from the judges.
The purpose of the Introduction to Business course is to present a broad introduction to the functioning of business enterprise within the United States. The course introduces economic systems, essential elements of business organization, human resource management, marketing, finance, real estate, and risk management. It also develops business vocabulary.
This introductory course provides a general survey of finance and investments. It emphasizes an intuitive, logical understanding of the theory and practice of financial markets, illustrating the concepts through examples and cases drawn from personal application as well as the public, private, and non-profit sectors. Topics covered include a Biblical perspective of money, personal finance, basic economics, investment banking, building an investment portfolio, an overview of Wall Street, and basic financial terms. The course culminates as with students completing a project to build and monitor a mock investment portfolio.
This course serves as an introduction to psychological science – the study of behavior and mental processes. Psychology surveys the major sub-disciplines of the field, including such topics as the brain and neuroscience, behavioral genetics, cognitive and social development, perception, learning, memory, decision-making, language, consciousness, emotions, motivation, psychological disorders, social identity, interpersonal and group interactions, and cultural processes.